5 reasons for shoulder pain that have nothing to do with old age

shoulder pain causesThe shoulder is one of the most-used joints within the body, so if something goes wrong, it can severely impact your range of motion, as well as cause significant pain when carrying out daily tasks.

Shoulder pain is often associated as a sign of getting older. However, there could be many potential causes and identifying the cause of shoulder pain is, therefore, key to getting the right treatment. So here, we’ll look at 5 reasons why your shoulder hurts that have nothing to do with the ageing process.

  1. Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability can occur either through overuse or as the result of an injury. It occurs when the head of the bone of the upper arm is forced out of its socket. This can either cause a full or partial dislocation.

A partial dislocation is known as subluxation, with the bone coming partially out of its socket. A full dislocation occurs when the bone comes fully out of the socket. The muscles, tendons and ligaments surrounding the joint are usually weak, allowing the bone to dislocate out of the socket.

Shoulder instability can cause pain in the shoulder, as well as down the arm and neck. You may also be able to feel the joint coming out of place.

  1. Shoulder Impingement

If you feel pain in the shoulder when raising the arm up, it could be down to shoulder impingement. The condition occurs when the acromion, or top of the shoulder blade, places pressure onto the soft tissues as the arm is lifted. If left untreated, it can lead to tendinitis and bursitis which would limit movement as well as cause pain.

  1. Frozen Shoulder

Otherwise referred to as adhesive capsulitis, a frozen shoulder refers to a stiff, painful shoulder. It occurs when the tissues surrounding the shoulder joint become inflamed. This causes the tissue to start to shrink and become tighter, leading to issues with motion and pain.

There is no sure cause of frozen shoulder, but exercises can help to rebuild the strength in the shoulder and improve the condition over time.

  1. Rotator Cuff Tear

Rotator cuff tears are extremely common, and they can significantly vary in severity. They are caused by either an acute injury or through overuse. The tears can either be full or partial and the severity of the pain can also vary.

Strength and motion loss typically occur with this type of shoulder injury. Patients also often report trouble sleeping because of the pain.

  1. Radiating Pain

Sometimes, the pain in your shoulder could be down to a condition of the neck or spine. This is known as radiating pain and it typically presents as tingling, a burning pain and numbness. It could be there has been an injury to the cervical disc which is causing pain within the shoulder.

These are just some of the reasons why your shoulder could be causing you pain and establishing the cause and severity of the problem is essential to ensure optimal treatment. Book a consultation with the London Shoulder Specialists today to get to the cause of your shoulder pain once and for all.

How long does a fractured shoulder take to heal?

Injury to the shoulder can result in a shoulder fracture of either the humerus (the ball part of the joint), the clavicle or collar bone or the shoulder blade (scapula) and recovery can vary dramatically depending on the location and extent of the injury and whether it requires surgical treatment.

How do I know if I’ve fractured my shoulder?

Types and locations of shoulder fracture often vary by age. If you’re suffering from shoulder pain, swelling, bruising, a lump at the site of the fracture and an inability to move the arm or raise it above the head.

  1. Clavicle Fracture: the most common shoulder fracture, particularly in children, is a clavicle fracture. The clavicle is the long, thin bone that extends from the base of the neck out to the shoulder and it can occur at any age. It is usually the result of fall or contact sports.
  2. Scapula Fracture: fracture of the shoulder blade or scapula is most rare and can be seen after severe trauma such as a car accident.
  3. Humerus Fracture: the humerus is the long bone that runs from the shoulder down to the elbow. A proximal humerus fracture occurs at the top of the bone, either at or just below the humeral head, or ball part of the joint. Fracture of the humerus can happen at any age but is more prevalent in the older population, often presenting as a crack in the bone resulting from wear and tear.

A shoulder fracture is often described as displaced or non-displaced. The majority of this injuries are non-displaced – almost 80% – which means the broken bone fragments remain in their correct anatomical position and typically heal well without surgery. The arm is kept immobilised in a sling while the shoulder fragments heal, which typically takes six weeks depending on the extent of the injury. A severe fracture can take up to three months to fully heal.

However, the remaining 20% of shoulder fractures are categorised as displaced. The bone fragments are separated and require surgery to restore normal anatomy. A high risk of developing arthritis in the future is another reason why surgery might be recommended. Within a week or so of surgery, you will be advised to start your physical rehabilitation programme to recover which again can take between six weeks and three months depending on how severe the initial fracture was.

It is important to note that a fractured shoulder is often accompanied by injury to the tendons or ligaments of the shoulder and if you are not recovering how you expect, there may be another shoulder injury that is impeding your progress.

Shoulder Stability Index developed to help predict treatment outcomes

shoulder instability treatment in athletesA new Shoulder Stability Index has been developed in order to help predict non-surgical shoulder instability treatment outcomes in athletes. The results of the study were presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and have proven promising at helping to identify the best possible treatment plan.

Here, we’ll look at what the study revealed and how shoulder stability indexing could help with the treatment of young athletes.

Understanding the shoulder instability study

The recent study carried out by John M. Tokish and his colleagues, analysed 57 adolescent patients who had presented with anterior shoulder instability for the first time. All had received non-operative treatment and were high-school athletes with at least one season remaining.

Their specific risk factors were evaluated individually and those deemed to have a higher predicted risk of failure were put into a 10-point Non-Operative Injury Severity Index (NISIS). The resulting score was then used alongside chi-square analysis and regression analysis to identify the overall predicted failure score of non-operative treatment.

There were six factors in total which were identified as potential risk factors and added into NISIS. These included patients who were aged over 15, the type of sport performed, the type of instability, bone loss, arm dominance and female gender.

Out of the 57 patients, 79% were able to fully return to their chosen sport without surgical intervention. They also didn’t miss any time out because of their shoulder instability. Those who had a preoperative score of >7 had 90% rate return to sport, while those who scored <8 had a 50% return to sport rate. This clearly shows that the higher NISIS risk patients would benefit from a more surgical approach.

Further studies will now need to be carried out to independently validate the stability index. However, it is already showing promise that it could be used by physicians to help decide which form of treatment to use when young athletes seek help for shoulder instability.

What is shoulder instability?

Shoulder instability is a very common shoulder issue, where the ball is unable to stay securely within the socket. This largely occurs when the structures around the joint of the shoulder stop working correctly.

Patients often discover they have shoulder instability when the ball partially slides out of place, causing subluxation. This is basically a partial dislocation. It presents either as a dead arm, or there could be significant pain.

The instability can occur in either the front of the joint (anterior instability), or at the back of the joint (posterior instability). However, the most common is anterior instability, which is what the study above focused on.

Treatment options vary depending upon a number of factors. However, non-surgical methods are almost always chosen as a first course of action. These can include physiotherapy sessions which aim to strengthen the joint and keep it in position. Non-surgical treatments are usually carried out for a few months before it can be determined whether or not they are working.

The new study is an interesting development, showing NISIS shoulder stability indexing could help to determine the best course of treatment for patients presenting with shoulder instability. However, it is uncertain when it could be introduced due to further testing requirements. In the meantime, patients who are concerned they may have shoulder instability should seek treatment as soon as possible to prevent the condition from worsening.

Frozen Shoulder Revealed as One of 20 Most Painful Conditions to Live With by NHS

The NHS has published a list of the top 20 most painful conditions to live with and frozen shoulder was among them. Not only does the condition cause extreme pain, but it can also last for many years if left untreated.

So, what is frozen shoulder and how can it be treated? Below, you’ll discover more about this painful condition and the treatment options on offer.

What is frozen shoulder?

Frozen shoulder is a condition which occurs when the shoulder joint’s ligaments stiffen and swell up. The swelling and stiffness become so bad that normal healing is unable to occur. This ultimately leads to difficulty moving the shoulder and carrying out regular day-to-day activities. If left untreated, the stiffness can become so severe that patients have very little function ability.

Those suffering from diabetes have been shown to have an increased risk of developing frozen shoulder. If you’ve had recent surgery, an under or over active thyroid, heart disease or if you’ve recently had a stroke, your risk factor also increases.

What causes the condition?

Frozen shoulder is broadly split into two categories. Primary frozen shoulder is where the cause of the condition isn’t known. Approximately 15% of patients think it is related to a minor shoulder injury. It’s also known that diabetes sufferers and those suffering from a thyroid problem are more likely to experience the condition.

Secondary frozen shoulder tends to occur when the shoulder isn’t used for long periods of time. It also classifies those who have had a heart attack or a stroke. Some patients also find that they develop frozen shoulder after having surgery to treat a different shoulder issue.

Research is being carried out to determine the actual cause of the condition and why it occurs.

How can you tell if you have frozen shoulder?

It can be difficult to tell whether you’re suffering from frozen shoulder given that the majority of shoulder injuries produce a lot of pain. However, there are some stand-out symptoms which could suggest you’re suffering from the condition. These include:

  • Pain and tightness around the shoulder area
  • Pain felt at the back of the wrists
  • A tight feeling when trying to light the arm or carry out overhead activities
  • Over time the symptoms will worsen

If you have any of the above symptoms, it’s important to contact a shoulder specialist without delay. The earlier the condition is treated, the sooner you can enjoy being pain-free.

What are the most effective treatments?

Depending upon the severity of the condition and how early you seek treatment, you may get away with at-home treatment. This will consist of pain relief and various exercises to improve functionality.

One of the mainstays of treatment is ultrasound assessment of the shoulder with a guided injection, but, if the problem is severe, surgery could be the best course of action. It’s important to realise that there is no right treatment approach for everyone. Each patient requires an individual treatment plan based upon the severity of the condition.

It is estimated that one million people in the UK suffer from frozen shoulder each year and in a 2013 UK study into people living with the condition, pain, inconvenience and loss of mobility were all identified as key themes. Participants also identified confusion and anxiety over diagnosis and treatment as being a significant factor and felt that specialist consultation brought more ‘definitive diagnosis, relief from anxiety and usually self-rated improvement’.

If you suspect you have frozen shoulder, don’t suffer from the pain for years to come and seek diagnosis and treatment from a shoulder specialist as early as possible.

New Study Pinpoints the Reasons Why Patients Choose Rotator Cuff Surgery

rotator cuff surgery choiceNew research has revealed the reasons patients opt to undergo rotator cuff surgery. Often seen as a last resort, rotator cuff surgery can prove extremely useful at eliminating pain and improving shoulder function. However, depending upon the type of surgery carried out, the recovery can be a long, slow one.

Here, we’ll look at what the new study revealed and whether rotator cuff surgery is the best course of treatment.

What did the study reveal?

Researchers from the Rothman Institute in the US recently conducted a study to see why patients opt for rotator cuff surgery. The results, which were presented at the annual American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine meeting in San Diego, revealed the number one reason was improved functionality.

There were 149 participants in the study, all of which were planning to undergo ARCR (Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair). They each filled out a questionnaire to determine what influenced their decision. A staggering 80% of participants stated they chose surgery because they wanted to regain normal shoulder function. Other reasons cited included chronic pain, surgeon recommendations, concern over the problem becoming worse and sleep troubles because of the condition.

Interestingly, follow up after participants had undergone the surgery, showed that shoulder functionality had indeed improved. The overall functionality score of the group increased from 42.6 to 77.

What is rotator cuff surgery?

There are several types of rotator cuff surgery, including:

  • Arthroscopic repair
  • Open repair

Arthroscopic repair is the type of surgery the study participants underwent. It is also considered one of the best types of rotator cuff surgery in terms of success at improving shoulder functionality. A small camera known as an arthroscope, is inserted within the shoulder joint. This allows the surgeon to see where to insert their medical instruments. Small incisions are made so the surgeon can guide the medical instruments towards the torn rotator cuff. It’s considered the least invasive surgical method.

An open repair is the more traditional method and it’s mainly used to repair severe or complex rotator cuff tears. A large incision is made over the shoulder before the deltoid muscle is detached. This gives them better access to the tear and makes it easier to carry out the repair work.

The choice of surgery will depend upon how severe the tear is, and which option the surgeon feels will be most effective.

Identifying rotator cuff injuries

So, how do you know if you need rotator cuff surgery? The trouble with shoulder injuries is that they often present much of the same symptoms. Pain is the most common symptom and with rotator cuff tears, it will usually present outside of the upper arm and the shoulder.

You’ll typically experience severe pain when you attempt to do any overhead activities. It’s also common for the pain to worsen at night, causing sleep disturbances. If you notice these symptoms, it’s important to seek a diagnosis from a shoulder specialist. They will be able to identify whether or not it is a rotator cuff injury and whether surgery is the best step forward.

Rotator cuff injuries can have a profound impact on quality of life and this study illustrates just how important rotator cuff surgery can be in terms of shoulder function. However, if you want to benefit from minimally invasive surgery, it’s important you seek treatment early.

Higher risk of complications after shoulder replacement surgery in diabetes patients

infected shoulder replacement in diabetes patientsNew research suggests that patients with diabetes who undergo shoulder replacement surgery may have an increased risk of complications. Results of the study, published within the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, revealed there was a particularly high risk of deep infection and postoperative wound complications.

This is the first time that diabetes has been linked to complications within shoulder surgery, though it has long been linked to an increased risk of hip and knee replacement surgery. As the number of patients with diabetes seeking shoulder replacement surgery is sure to rise, researchers wanted to determine the true risks involved.

What did the study reveal?

The study was carried out to determine the link between deep postoperative infection and preoperative levels of HbA1c, after shoulder replacement surgery. It delved into data from 18,729 patients who had a shoulder replacement surgery between the years 2007 and 2015. Out of these patients, 8,068 had Diabetes and approximately 2,537 of them had their HbA1c levels tested within three months prior to the surgery.

The researchers looked at the wound complication rate after six months, and the deep infection rate within one year of the surgery. It was discovered that patients who do have diabetes, have a 1.4% risk of developing an infection and a 0.7% risk of developing a deep infection. In contrast, patients without diabetes had a 0.9% risk of infection and a 0.4% risk of a deep infection.

So, it does show patients suffering from diabetes do have a great risk of complications However, that risk is still extremely small.

How accurate is the study?

Although the study has proven successful in identifying an increased risk in diabetes sufferers, it did have its limitations. The main thing which could impact the accuracy of the study is the analysis of HbA1c levels. The tests to measure HbA1c levels can be inaccurate, particularly if the patient is suffering from another condition which may be impacting their blood sugar.

The study was also reliant upon a pretty large database, relying upon the accuracy at which the data was coded. So, the results may not be as reliable as the researchers might have hoped.

How to spot an infected shoulder replacement

The risk of infection after a shoulder replacement surgery is extremely rare. However, it is worth being aware of the signs of an infected joint such as the shoulder.

The main symptoms of an infected shoulder replacement include:

  • Stiffness or pain within the joint
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling
  • Wound drainage
  • Redness and warmth surrounding the wound

If you notice any of these symptoms, you should consult your surgeon immediately. In case of an infection, there are several treatment options available, but early intervention is always best.

Superspecialisation in young athletes means greater risk of injury burnout

injury burnout in young athletesThere has been a significant increase in the number of young athletes partaking in sport ‘superspecialisation’. Believing that focusing on one sport and dedicating 110% to it from a young age will lead to them becoming a much better athlete, these young athletes are actually at great risk of burning themselves out.

Not only that, but they are also setting themselves up for an injury which could jeopardise their career. Surgeons are seeing an increasing number of young athletes seeking treatment for overuse injuries, especially in the shoulder.

Here, we’ll look at how superspecialisation can lead to a greater risk of injury burnout in young athletes.

Why superspecialisation poses a risk of injury burnout in young athletes

It’s easy to see the logic behind young athletes wanting to focus specifically on one sport. After all, the more you practice just one sport, the better at it you’ll become right?

Unfortunately, there isn’t actually any evidence to suggest that superspecialisation does make you a better athlete. In fact, there’s even been some evidence to suggest that partaking in multiple sports rather than just one, is what creates a better athlete. Partaking in multiple sports also greatly reduces the risk of injury.


The trouble is, when young athletes over-train in one sport, they’re placing themselves at a high risk of repetitive injuries. Overuse shoulder injuries are especially common and can prove damaging to a young athlete’s career. Those who do multiple sports, on the other hand, are continuously using different muscles groups, reducing the risk of injury.

Female athletes at greater risk of overuse injury

Interestingly, the type and frequency of the injuries developed through superspecialisation is totally different between young men and women. In fact, it’s estimated that young women are up to seven times more likely to develop an injury through superspecialisation.

It is thought that hormonal and anatomic differences contribute towards the greater risk in young women. The type of sport also makes a difference, with young women more likely to suffer an injury playing softball, volleyball and football. For young male athletes, overhead sports tend to pose the greatest risk.

Common shoulder injury burnout in young athletes

The main shoulder injuries young athletes partaking in superspecialisation risk, are overuse injuries. Any athlete can develop a shoulder injury because of overuse of the arms, but young athletes are particularly susceptible due to the fact the ligaments, tendons and muscles are not yet fully mature. This means they haven’t yet developed maximum strength, making them prone to tears and stretching. Tendonitis, rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability are just some of the common injuries young athletes face.

If caught early enough, shoulder injuries can often be repaired via plenty of rest and strengthening exercises. However, if left untreated, the shoulder injury is likely to worsen, leading to potentially months out of the field and a long and painful recovery.

While superspecialisation may seem like the best option to become a better athlete, young people do need to be aware of the increased dangers it brings. Shoulder injuries can lead to significant time out and in some cases, could completely destroy a young athletes career. Those who believe they have injured their shoulder should always seek immediate diagnosis. The earlier the problem is diagnosed, the easier and less painful it will be to treat.

Wimbledon Special: avoiding tennis shoulder injuries

The countdown to Wimbledon 2018 is on and tennis stars from across the world are ramping up their training for one of tennis’ most glittering prizes. However, with vigorous training comes an increased risk of injury – especially to the shoulders.

Tennis players are at risk of numerous types of injuries, but shoulder injuries are potentially one of the worst. They can put a player out of action for months, possibly even ending their career depending upon the severity. So, what shoulder injuries are tennis players susceptible to and how can they be prevented?

Common tennis shoulder injuries

preventing tennis shoulder injuriesDue to the highly dynamic and unusual motion, the shoulders are put through during overhead throwing sports such as tennis, the risk of injury is pretty high. Below, we’ll look at some of the most common shoulder injuries tennis players face throughout their career.

  • Labral injury:  The shoulder joint socket is surrounded by the labrum, a layer of fibrous tissue. Repetitive overhead motions can cause this tissue to tear, leading to significant pain, joint instability and a limited range of motion. Labral injuries are by far one of the most common shoulder injuries suffered by tennis players.
  • Shoulder bursitis: Commonly linked to shoulder impingement, this condition is caused by the rotator cuff rubbing against the front of the shoulder blade. The friction leads to the bursa becoming inflamed. This condition tends to develop quite slowly, becoming worse over time. Eventually, the shoulder will become very stiff and if it’s left untreated, could freeze up altogether.
  • Rotator cuff tears: Although rotator cuff tears are less common, they do tend to be one of the more serious shoulder injuries in tennis players. The tears typically occur due to overuse of the shoulder, or because of a traumatic injury. The tear can be partial or complete, causing pain whenever the arm is raised or lowered, along with weakness in the arm and in some cases, muscle atrophy.
  • Rotator cuff tendonitis:  Another rotator cuff injury tennis players face is rotator cuff tendonitis. This basically means the tendons become inflamed and it occurs due to overuse of overhead motions.

Each of the shoulder conditions above can vary in severity, making them difficult to diagnose and treat; especially by a GP. Therefore, it is crucial for patients to seek a diagnosis as quickly as possible from a qualified shoulder specialist.

Preventing tennis shoulder injuries

It isn’t always possible to prevent shoulder injuries, especially if you’re partaking in the sport at a professional level. However, building up the strength in the shoulder and back muscles can help lower the risk slightly.

Making sure you’re following the proper posture when carrying out overhead serves is also crucial to injury prevention. However, if a shoulder injury does occur, it is vital you seek early diagnosis.

Tennis players are at an increased risk of shoulder injury. Therefore, if any pain is felt in the shoulder, it is highly recommended the player seeks treatment as quickly as possible. All shoulder injuries will become worse if left untreated. This could lead to significant time away from the sport.

New study into a personalised approach to dealing with shoulder pain

personalised approach to shoulder painA new UK study is set to establish whether a personalised approach to dealing with shoulder pain could be an ideal solution for patients. It is estimated one in five adults within the UK suffer from shoulder pain. However, despite seeking treatment from their GP, 40% of patients continue to experience long-term shoulder pain.

Scientists from the Keele University are being jointly funded by the Arthritis Research UK and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). It is set to be the largest study of its kind and the hope is to provide patients with a treatment plan which will best fit their needs.

Here, you’ll discover more about this new study and what it could mean for the future of shoulder pain treatment.

What will the shoulder pain study involve?

The study is set to be one of the largest ever to be carried out into shoulder pain management. It will consist of four different stages and is reportedly costing £2.7 million.

In the first stage, researchers from the Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre will analyse existing research alongside the University of Oxford. They’ll use the findings of this research to determine which factors will influence the likelihood of specific treatments benefitting patients.

The second stage will see the researchers follow 1000 patients who have sought help from a physiotherapist or GP for their shoulder pain. This will aid in the development of a decision making and screening tool which will be trialled during a randomised study. It is reported that 500 of the participants will be from Oxfordshire.

New tool could help identify need for intervention

The researchers are hoping that the new tool developed during the study will be able to be used to assess the cause and outcome of shoulder issues. This, in turn, will help them to develop a more personalised treatment plan to match the condition.

As it stands, GPs and physiotherapists don’t currently have a tool which can help them identify a patient’s risk of experiencing long-term shoulder pain. So, if the new tool does prove successful, it will ensure patients who are at an increased risk, get the appropriate treatment they need early on. It will also help patients who aren’t suffering from serious shoulder problems, avoid unnecessary invasive treatments.

Shoulder problems need to be treated as early as possible

The one thing that is known about shoulder problems, is they need to be treated as early as possible. This is because, the longer the condition is left untreated, the worse it will become. Many patients are currently being failed by their doctors because there simply isn’t a reliable diagnostic tool available.

Existing research has shown that each patient experiences shoulder pain differently, making it difficult for doctors and physicians to determine how severe the problem is.

This new study is certainly promising and if successful, could prove to be a game changer in the diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain. In the meantime, patients are advised to seek treatment for any shoulder pain they may experience from a qualified, expert shoulder specialist.

Cortisone injections for rotator cuff tear linked to raised risk of revision surgery

cortisone injections and rotator cuff surgeryNew research presented at the Specialty Day for the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, has revealed cortisone injections pose an increased risk of rotator cuff surgery revision.

It was discovered that patients who receive cortisone injections within six months of the surgery, were more likely to require a revision surgery in the future. The researchers now suggest surgeons either avoid using the injections, or delay surgery in light of the findings.

How are cortisone injections used to treat the shoulder?

Cortisone injections are a popular treatment for shoulder injuries, often used in combination with rehabilitation. They’re typically used as a potential alternative to surgery. Shoulder surgery is known to have a long recovery period, especially rotator cuff surgery. So, the injections are used by surgeons in an attempt to prevent the need for surgery.

However, in a lot of cases, cortisone injections alone do not prevent the need for surgery. Many patients, therefore, end up requiring surgery within six months of having the injections. However, as this new research from the Medical University of South Carolina shows, these injections can potentially increase the risk of revision surgeries.

Understanding the new shoulder research

The research led by Sophia A. Traven, studied 4,959 patients who had undergone an arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair. It was discovered 553 of the patients ended up needing a further operation. Out of these 553 patients, 70.9% of them required a revision rotator cuff repair.

Interestingly, patients who had been given cortisone injections within six months of their shoulder surgery, showed to have an increased risk of requiring revision surgery within three years. Patients who received cortisone injections between 6 and 12 months before the surgery showed no increased risk.

Researchers believe the results of the study prove there is a time-dependant relationship between revision surgery and cortisone injections. This could prove crucial to surgeons looking to improve the outlook of shoulder surgery.

Although the research is certainly interesting, the team have stated more research is now required to look into the issue further. They plan to research whether the type of injection matters, and whether or not the number of injections a patient has, can have an impact on the healing process.

Other factors which contribute to failed rotator cuff surgery

Rotator cuff surgery is known to have a higher failure rate than other types of shoulder surgery. It is generally performed as a last resort, but it does prove a largely effective solution when all other methods have failed.

There are numerous reasons a rotator cuff repair can fail. Patients over the age of 55 are known to be at an increased risk. The size of the tear or whether more than one tendon is affected will also determine the chance of success. Smoking, poor overall health and poor muscle or tendon health are also risk factors to be addressed.

Overall, this new research is promising for surgeons, as it could help to reduce the risk of revision surgery. However, other factors will still need to be considered when deciding appropriate treatment.